Universal access via free license.
Collaborative effort where programmer improve the source code and share the changes within the community. code is merely released to the public under some license.
Free and Open-Source Software (FOSS).
Richard Stallman,founder of the GNU Project and the free software movement, in or before 2002.
The philosophy of the movement is that the use of computers should not lead to people being prevented from cooperating with each other.
Linus Benedict Torvalds is a Finnish-American software engineer, who is the creator of the Linux kernel, that became the kernel for operating systems (and many distributions of each), such as GNU and years later Android and Chrome OS. He also created the distributed revision control system Git.
Open-source software development model.